Thursday, April 27

Chesteron on Logic

This week I lectured on both the age of the "Enlightenment" and the age of the "Puritans." Quite a study in contrasts. One of the issues that such a juxtaposition raised in my mind was the question of the power of reason, rationality, logic, and knowledge--in other words, the question of epistemology.

As I was pondering such imponderables, my friend, Robbie McBroom, reminded me of G.K. Chesterton's wonderful little essay on the limits of reason published in the London Daily News, Feb 25, 1905. It is quite a profound meditation--especially in light of the Enlightenment-Puritan contradistinction:

"Logic and truth, as a matter of fact, have very little to do with each other. Logic is concerned merely with the fidelity and accuracy with which a certain process is performed, a process which can be performed with any materials, with any assumption. You can be as logical about griffins and basilisks as about sheep and pigs. On the assumption that a man has two ears, it is good logic that three men have six ears, but on the assumption that a man has four ears, it is equally good logic that three men have twelve. And the power of seeing how many ears the average man, as a fact, possesses, the power of counting a gentleman's ears accurately and without mathematical confusion, is not a logical thing but a primary and direct experience, like a physical sense, like a religious vision. The power of counting ears may be limited by a blow on the head; it may be disturbed and even augmented by two bottles of champagne; but it cannot be affected by argument."

"Logic has again and again been expended, and expended most brilliantly and effectively, on things that do not exist at all. There is far more logic, more sustained consistency of the mind, in the science of heraldry than in the science of biology. There is more logic in
Alice in Wonderland than in the Statute Book or the Blue Books."

"The relations of logic to truth depend, then, not upon its perfection as logic, but upon certain pre-logical faculties and certain pre-logical discoveries, upon the possession of those faculties, upon the power of making those discoveries. If a man starts with certain assumptions, he may be a good logician and a good citizen, a wise man, a successful figure. If he starts with certain other assumptions, he may be an equally good logician and a bankrupt, a criminal, a raving lunatic. Logic, then, is not necessarily an instrument for finding truth; on the contrary, truth is necessarily an instrument for using logic—for using it, that is, for the discovery of further truth and for the profit of humanity."

"Briefly, you can only find truth with logic if you have already found truth without it."


covenantpromise said...

Dr. Grant,

My former pastor often quipped that reason (or logic) is not God but the servant of God.
I once heard that C.S Lewis said "Education without ethics only makes man a more clever devil". This is apparently the point Chesterton was making in noting that logic without the truth could very well leave a man bankrupt, a criminal and a raving lunatic. Praise God that faith is the foundation on which reason rests and not the other way around.

Jason Parolini

Lawrence Underwood said...

I love this quote. I've been in a running discussion with some Reformed folk who are, with all love intended, stodgy, prideful, well just snobs. (I am a Reformed believer. Hopefully, not like those I just described.) I believe one of the tap roots is the elevation of logical reasoning to a place that God never intended. Because it is primarily a tool of the mind it cannot delve the issues of the spirit.

Johnny! said...

"Briefly, you can only find truth with logic if you have already found truth without it."

Sounds very Van Tilian!

Kevin Craig said...